Showing posts with label Virus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Virus. Show all posts

Zika Virus Symptoms Arrival of the Last United States

At least two people in a mile zone square mosquito, sometimes early July north of downtown Miami acquired by Zika, state and federal health authorities, the virus spreads locally in the mainland US, confirm the first cluster.

South Florida Broward County, and two of the four Miami-Dade, Florida Governor Rick Scott has been infected by the local mosquitoes, health authorities and elected officials whose announcement sparked a wave of reactions on your side.

"Florida is the first state in the nation Zika virus, a local infection," Scott said.

Zika was expected following the rapid expansion of the virus after the fall of the arrival of the last United of the continental States, the Caribbean and Latin America. But confirmation was Republicans and Democrats to respond to the local mosquito Zika Florida sent to threats to public health, to approve for error to accuse emergency financing, with the Congress surprised September.

Travel and tourism can have a major impact on the disease. United Travel the country and allow the transmission of Miami Zika is an important starting point for the people, and millions of people, and justifies the epicenter of the epidemic, Brazil, on the way to South Florida, where the matches take place Olympic must flow.

However, to avoid the Centers for Disease Control and prevention of disease pregnant women and pregnant women, with the Zika virus traveling in the area said to check CDC Director Tom Peace Friday that the agency, including tips for speaking women are not the same for Miami who have the disease have an increased risk because their babies and other neurological disorders can cause microcephaly.

The CDC has advised pregnant women to avoid travel to Puerto Rico and other places with ongoing Zika transmission, he said, because the agency had anticipated an explosive outbreak of the disease on the island due to environmental and other factors.

“There are likely to be isolated cases in the United States, and there may be occasional clusters in the United States,” Frieden said. “We don’t expect widespread transmission.”

He said women in the area who are pregnant should consider getting tested for Zika and that they take steps to avoid mosquito bites. However, he warned, if new Zika infections continue to occur in the same Miami neighborhood even after extensive spraying, inspections and other efforts to reduce mosquitoes, “this would be a concern and warrant further advice and action.”
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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Did you know that there is a virus that is 100 times more infectious than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? The virus not only infects the body and causes inflammation of the liver, however, can cause massive death of liver cells and develop in the liver scarring (cirrhosis), cancer and chronic infection.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the greatest threats to global health. It is estimated that 2 billion people around the world have received HBV and 350 million people have chronic (long term) hepatitis B infection In addition, about 500,000 to 700,000 people die from hepatitis B each year.

The prevalence of hepatitis B varies geographically, and is classified as low, medium, high prevalence.

Indonesia, along with other South-East Asia, China and some African countries have been divided into zones. Indonesia has 12 million people are infected with HBV, the third largest in the world after China and India.

HBV, discovered by Dr. Baruch Blumberg in 1965, is a DNA virus and a member of the family of hepadnaviruses.

There are eight known genotypes of hepatitis B (genotype AH), and in addition it is reported a putative new genotype (genotype I) was found recently in Asia. Each of the genotypes have a distinct geographical distribution and have different responses to treatment.

The virus is transmitted by exposure to infected blood or body fluids (such as vaginal fluids, semen). The possible routes of transmission have been contaminated blood transfusion, sexual contact, sharing contaminated razors or toothbrushes, needles infected by injecting drugs, ear piercing, tattooing, acupuncture, contaminated instruments, manicure or pedicure In some procedures, and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Unfortunately, up to 90 percent of infected infants develop chronic infection with HBV, therefore a higher risk of liver cancer in adulthood. About 25 percent of adults chronically infected during childhood later die from complications of chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer or cirrhosis.

However, about 5-10 percent of infections acquired in adulthood becomes a chronic infection. HBV is not spread by shaking hands, coughing, sneezing, hugging, using the same toilets, food or water.

The symptoms of hepatitis B infection vary - no sign of fatigue, joint pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, clay-colored stools.

Complications raging hepatitis (acute massive death of liver cells), liver cirrhosis, which can occur with asides (fluid in the abdominal cavity), leg edema, splenomegaly, bleeding disorders, gynecomastia ( enlarged male breasts), impaired consciousness and liver cancer. Patients with HBV is also susceptible to hepatitis D.

This dual infection may lead to rage hepatitis. There is progress in drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, including the most potent antiviral agents and interferon.

However, the complete eradication of HBV is not yet possible. Liver transplantation is considered when liver damage is severe.

It seems that HBV virus is a catastrophic and unprecedented. But there is a very simple thing that can prevent and break the spread of HBV.

HBV infection can be effectively prevented through vaccination. Prof. Blumberg invented the vaccine in 1969. It is the first vaccine in the world of prevention of human cancer.

There was a significant increase in the number of countries to include hepatitis B vaccine in national immunization programs for children from 31 countries in 1992 to 177 in 2009.

Vaccination against hepatitis B is the mainstay of prevention of hepatitis B and has been shown to reduce the rate of chronic infection in many countries, from 8 to 15 percent to less than 1 percent among vaccinated children. Moreover, Taiwan, the vaccination program has reduced the incidence of liver cancer in children.

In Indonesia, vaccination against hepatitis B for newborns was introduced in 1987 and is part of the routine since 1997.

WHO recommends vaccination against hepatitis B for all infants, from birth followed by two subsequent immunizations each with a minimum interval of 1 and 2 months respectively.

Children and adolescents under 18 who have not previously been vaccinated should be vaccinated. Adults in groups at high risk, such as a spouse HBV infection, requiring frequent blood transfusions, hemodialysis patients, users of needle drugs, occupational risk of HBV infection (health workers) and travelers international areas with high rates of HBV infection should also receive the vaccine.

The vaccine is safe and effective, but the level of antibodies induced by vaccination may decrease over time. Therefore, the booster vaccination is required when the antibody level decreases.

In addition to vaccination, there are some things to keep us safe. These consist of using disposable needles and sterilized, do not share razors or toothbrushes with others, wearing gloves when touching blood or other infected body fluids, knowing your spouse's state of HBV infection, and practice safe sex.

July 28 is World Hepatitis Day. One of the objectives of this event is to raise awareness, prevention, detection and control of viral hepatitis, particularly HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), both types of hepatitis most often associated with cirrhosis and complications of cancer.

Although many countries have begun a vaccination against hepatitis B as part of national immunization programs, to help reduce the infestation, the number of people infected with HBV is still high.

Since there is no vaccine for hepatitis C and hepatitis B to prevent hepatitis D infection indirectly, appropriate vaccination Hepatitis B is very important, especially for those classified as high-risk groups.

From an economic perspective, the cost for the purchase of medicines by mouth with HBV is 10 times greater than the purchase of a vaccine against hepatitis B, it will increase several times when the type of drug injectors is necessary for treatment.

There are also considerable costs of purchases for the treatment of complications, hospital costs and costs of laboratory tests.

Last but not least, the disease in human productivity, not only individually but also throughout the world. After participating in the global war against HBV.

He knows of HBV, the means of transmission, measures to protect themselves and be sure to have received the hepatitis B vaccine enough.
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